Esperanto Common Roots Glossary


This word list was pulled in large part from the Frekvencmorfemaro de Parolata Esperanto (List of Morpheme Frequency in Spoken Esperanto), an analysis of usage frequency in spoken Esperanto. That list revealed that 467 morphemes are enough to yield 95% comprehension in Esperanto, and that 564 words are enough to obtain 80% comprehension based on frequency of use. In most Indo-European languages, about 2000 words are necessary for this level of comprehension.


Here you are presented with a non-exhaustive list of root words in Esperanto. By means of agglutination from within this list, in line with the various part of speech endings, you can be extremely expressive in Esperanto. Reading Esperanto, you can break down the parts and use this list in order to understand compound words.


absolut/ absolute

/ suffix indicating dirtyness or contemptuousness

aĉet/ purchase, buy

ad/ suffix indicating continuousness

adres/ address (location)

afer/ affair, matter

afrik/ Africa

ag/ action, act

/ age

/ suffix indicating thing, manifestation

ajn/ particle used with i- and ki- correlatives to create constructions such as “whenever” and “anytime”

akcept/ accept

akv/ water

al/ preposition to 

ali/ other

almenaŭ/ at least

alt/ height, tall

am/ love

amas/ mass, throng, en masse

amerik/ the Americas

amik/ friend

ampleks/ extensive

amuz/ fun, amusement

an/ suffix indicating membership

angl/ England

ankaŭ/ also

ankoraŭ/ still

anonc/ announcement

anstataŭ/ in stead of

ant/ suffix indicating present action or actor

antaŭ/ before

aparat/ apparatus, machine

apart/ separate

aper/ appear

ar/ suffix indicating collection

aranĝ/ arrange

asoci/ association (group)

aspekt/ have an appearance

at/ suffix indicating present passive

atend/ wait

atent/ attention

ating/ attain

/ conjunction or

aŭd/ hear

aŭskult/ listen

aŭtobus/ bus

aŭt(omobil)/ car

av/ grandparent


banan/ banana

batal/ battle

baz/ base, basis

bedaŭr/ regret

bel/ beautiful

bend/ tape

bezon/ need

bibliotek/ library (edifice)

bild/ picture

bilet/ ticket

bird/ bird

bon/ good

botel/ bottle

bulgar/ Bulgaria


cel/ aim, goal

cent/ 100

centr/ center

cert/ certain

ceter/ remaining

cigared/ cigarette


ĉambr/ room 

ĉar/ conjunction because

ĉarm/ charming, quaint

ĉe/ preposition at 

ĉef/ boss, main

ĉeval/ horse

ĉi/ particle used with ti- correlatives to indicate nearness, like in here or this.  

ĉiam/ correlative always

ĉin/ China

ĉio/ correlative everything

ĉirkaŭ/ preposition around

ĉiu/ each

ĉu/ particle indicating yes or no question  


da/ preposition quantity of

dan/ Denmark

dank/ thank

daŭr/ last (duration)  

de/ preposition of 

debat/ debate

decid/ decide

deĵor/ be on duty

dek/ 10

dekstr/ right

delegaci/ delegation

demand/ ask

dev/ be obligated

dezir/ desire

diabl/ devil

difin/ define

dir/ say, tell

dis/ prefix indicating dispersion

diskriminaci/ discriminate

diskut/ discuss

divers/ diverse

divid/ divide, share

do/ particle for so

dom/ house

don/ give

donac/ gift

dorm/ sleep

du/ 2

dum/ preposition during


ebl/ suffix indicating possibility

ec/ suffix indicating abstract quality

/ particle even

edz/ spouse

eg/ suffix indicating largeness

ej/ suffix indicating location 

ek/ prefix indicating either beginning or suddenness

eks/ prefix indicating former

ekskurs/ excursion

ekster/ preposition outside

ekzempl/ example

ekzempler/ individual copy 

ekzist/ exist

el/ prounoun from out of

elekt/ select

en/ preposition in

entrepren/ enterprise

er/ suffix indicating piece

erinac/ porcupine

esenc/ essence

esper/ hope

est/ be

estr/ suffix indicating leader

et/ suffix indicating smallness

eŭrop/ Europe

eventual/ eventual

evolu/ become evolved


facil/ easy

fak/ specialty

fakt/ fact

fal/ fall

famili/ family

far/ do, make

fart/ fare

feliĉ/ happy

ferm/ close

festival/ festival

film/ film

fin/ finish

finn/ Finnland

firm/ firm

fiŝ/ fish

flank/ side

flav/ yellow

flor/ flower

flug/ fly

foj/ time, occurrence

for/ particle for away

forges/ forget

form/ form

fort/ strong

fot/ photograph

franc/ France

frank/ franc

frat/ sibling

fraŭl/ unmarried adult 

fraz/ sentence

frenez/ crazy

fru/ early

funkci/ function

fuŝ/ prefix indicating blunder


ge/ prefix indicating mixed company

german/ Germany

giĉet/ cashier station

grad/ grade

grand/ big

gratul/ congratulate

grav/ important

grup/ group

gvid/ guide


ĝen/ bother

ĝeneral/ in a general sense

ĝi/ pronoun it

ĝis/ preposition until

ĝoj/ joy

ĝust/ correct


ha/ interjection

hav/ have

hebre/ Hebrew

hejm/ home

help/ help

hieraŭ/ yesterday

ho/ interjection

hodiaŭ/ today

hom/ person

hor/ hour, time of day

hotel/ hotel


ia/ correlative some kind of

iam/ correlative sometime

ide/ idea

ie/ correlative somewhere

iel/ correlative in some way

ig/ suffix indicating transitivity, causation 

/ suffix indicating becoming

il/ suffix indicating tool

ili/ pronoun them

imag/ image, imagine

in/ suffix indicating female

ind/ suffix indicating worthiness

infan/ child

inform/ inform, information

instru/ teach

int/ suffix indicating past action or actor

inteligent/ intelligent

inter/ preposition between, among

interes/ interest

interpret/ interpret

invit/ invite

io/ correlative something

iom/ correlative some amount of 

ir/ go

iran/ Iran

ist/ suffix indicating professional or adherent

it/ suffix indicating past passive

ital/ Italy

iu/ correlative someone


ja/ indeed

jam/ already

japan/ Japan

jar/ year

je/ preposition (no fixed meaning)

jen/ behold

jes/ yes

jun/ young


ĵet/ throw


kaj/ conjunction and

kamp/ field

kant/ sing

kapabl/ capable

kapt/ catch, capture

kar/ dear

karot/ carrot

kart/ card

kaŝ/ hide

kaz/ case

ke/ conjunction that

kelk/ several

kia/ correlative what kind of

kial/ correlative why

kiam/ correlative when

kie/ correlative where

kiel/ correlative how

kilo/ kilo- 

kio/ correlative what thing

kiom/ correlative how much

kiu/ correlative who or which

klar/ clear

klopod/ take steps to achieve

knab/ young person

kolor/ color

komenc/ begin

komision/ commission

komitat/ committee

kompetent/ competent

komplet/ complete

komplik/ complicated

kompren/ understand

kon/ be familiar with

koncept/ concept

koncern/ in question

kongres/ congress, conference

konkret/ concrete

konkurs/ contest

konsci/ be conscious 

konsent/ agree

konserv/ conserve

konsil/ advise

konsili/ council

konsist/ consist

konstant/ permanent

kontakt/ contact

kontraŭ/ preposition against

kontrol/ check, look into

korb/ basket

korespond/ correspondence

kost/ cost

kovr/ cover

kred/ believe

kresk/ grow up

kri/ shout

krokodil1/ crocodile

krokodil2/ use a national language where Esperanto would be appropriate

krom/ preposition besides

kruel/ cruel

kuir/ cook 

kuler/ spoon

kultur/ culture

kun/ preposition with 

kunikl/ rabbit

kur/ run

kutim/ usual, custom

kvankam/ conjunction although

kvar/ 4

kvazaŭ/ conjunction as if, quasi-

kvin/ 5


la/ article the

labor/ work

lag/ lake

lanĉ/ launch

land/ country

las/ let go

last/ last, most recent

laŭ/ preposition according to

lav/ wash

leg/ read

lern/ learn

lert/ skilled

leter/ letter of correspondence

lev/ raise something up

li/ pronoun he

liber/ free

libr/ book

lig/ link, bind

lingv/ language

list/ list

lit/ bed

liter/ alphabetic glyph

literatur/ literature

loĝ/ reside

lok/ location

long/ long

lu/ rent from

lud/ play a game


mal/ prefix indicating opposite

man/ hand

manĝ/ eat

manier/ manner

mank/ be lacking

map/ map

mar/ large body of salt water

mark1/ mark 

mark2/ obsolete German currency

marŝ/ walk

maŝin/ machine

maten/ morning

material/ material

mem/ self

membr/ member

memor/ remember, memory

met/ put

mez/ middle, average

mi/ pronoun I, me

miks/ mix

mil/ 1000

minimum/ minimum

minut/ minute = 60 seconds

mir/ marvel

moment/ moment

mon/ money

monat/ month

mond/ world

mont/ mountain

montr/ show

morgaŭ/ tomorrow

mov/ move something

mult/ multiple, many


naci/ nation

naĝ/ swim

nask/ bear fruit

naŭ/ 9

ne/ no

neces/ necessary

nederland/ Netherlands

neniam/ correlative never

nenio/ correlative nothing

neniu/ correlative no one

nepr/ mandatory

neŭtral/ neutral

ni/ pronoun us, we

nivel/ level

nokt/ night

nom/ name

normal/ normal

nov/ new

nu/ interjection

nud/ naked

numer/ number

nun/ now

nur/ merely, only


ofert/ offer

oficial/ official

oft/ frequent

ok/ 8

okaz/ happen

okcident/ west

okup/ occupy

ol/ preposition than

on/ suffix indicating number as denominator

oni/ pronoun one

ont/ suffix indicating future action or actor

opini/ opine

ord/ order (arrangement) 

ordinar/ ordinary

organiz/ organize

orient/ east

ov/ egg


pag/ pay

paĝ/ page

paper/ paper

pardon/ pardon

parol/ speak

part/ part

pas/ pass

paŝ/ step

patr/ parent

pend/ hang 

pens/ think

per/ preposition by means of

perd/ lose

perfekt/ perfect

period/ period of time

persik/ peach

person/ person

pet/ request

pied/ foot

plaĉ/ be pleasing

plan/ plan

plank/ floor

plej/ particle indicating superlative

plen/ full

pli/ particle indicating comparative

plor/ weep

plu/ further

plur/ plural

pokal/ trophy cup

pom/ apple

pont/ bridge

popular/ popular

por/ preposition in order to

port/ door

post/ preposition after

postul/ require

pov/ be able to

prav/ be morally right

precip/ principal

preciz/ precise

prefer/ prefer

preleg/ lecture

premi/ prize

pren/ take

prepar/ prepare

preskaŭ/ nearly

pret/ ready

prez/ price

prezent/ present

prezid/ preside

pri/ preposition about, concerning

princip/ principle

pro/ preposition on account of

problem/ problem 

produkt/ product, produce

profesi/ professional

profesor/ professor

program/ program

proksim/ close

propon/ propose

protest/ protest

protokol/ minutes of a meeting

prov/ try

publik/ public

punkt/ dot

pup/ doll

pur/ clean


rajt/ right, entitlement

rakont/ story, tell a story

rapid/ fast, quick

raport/ report

re/ prefix indicating repetition

region/ region

regul/ rule, regulation

reklam/ advertisement

rekomend/ recommend

rekt/ direct

relativ/ relative

renkont/ meet

respond/ answer

rest/ remain

riĉ/ rich

ricev/ receive

rid/ laugh

rigard/ look at

rilat/ relation

rimark/ notice

river/ river

romp/ break

rus/ Russia


saĝ/ wise

sal/ salt

salon/ sitting room

salt/ jump

salut/ greet

sam/ same

sat/ satiated

saŭn/ suana

sci/ know

scienc/ science

se/ conjunction if 

sed/ conjunction but

seg/ saw

seks/ sex

sekv/ follow

semajn/ week

sen/ preposition without

senc/ sensible

send/ send

sent/ feel

sep/ 7

serĉ/ seek

seri/ series

ses/ 6

si/ pronoun reflexive to actor

sid/ sit

signif/ mean, signify

simil/ similar

simpl/ simple

simul/ feign, simulate

sinjor/ Mister

siren/ siren

sistem/ system

situaci/ situation

skandinavi/ Scandinavia

skatol/ box

ski/ ski

skrib/ write

soci/ society

sol/ alone

solv/ solution

sorĉ/ perform wizardry or witchcraft

spec/ type, species

special/ special

specif/ specific

spert/ experience

spinac/ spinach

star/ standing

stat/ state of being

statut/ code of law

strat/ street

struktur/ structure

stult/ stupid

sub/ preposition under

sud/ south

sufiĉ/ suffice

suk/ juice

sukces/ succeed, success, successful

super/ preposition above

supoz/ suppose

supr/ top

sur/ preposition on 

sved/ Sweden

svis/ Switzerland


ŝaf/ sheep

ŝajn/ seem

ŝanc/ chance, luck

ŝanĝ/ change

ŝat/ like, appreciate

ŝi/ pronoun she

ŝip/ sea-going vessel

ŝir/ tear, rip

ŝlos/ lock

ŝtel/ steal


tabl/ table

tabul/ board

tag/ day

tajp/ typewrite

tamen/ nevertheless

task/ task

te/ tea

teatr/ the theatrical art form

tekst/ text

teler/ plate

tem/ theme, subject

temp/ time

temperatur/ temperature

ten/ hold

teren/ terrain, campus

terur/ terrible

tia/ correlative that kind of

tial/ correlative for that reason

tiam/ correlative then

tie/ correlative there

tiel/ correlative in that way

tim/ fear

tio/ correlative that

tiom/ correlative so much

tiu/ correlative that person

tra/ preposition through

traduk/ translate

trajn/ train

trakt/ handle, deal with

tranĉ/ cut

trans/ preposition across

tre/ very much

tri/ 3

trink/ drink 

tro/ too much

trov/ find

tuj/ immediately

tuk/ napkin

tuŝ/ touch

tut/ entire, total


uj/ suffix indicating container

ul/ suffix indicating type of person

um/ suffix (no fixed meaning)

universal/ universal

universitat/ university

unu/ 1

urb/ municipality

uson/ United States of America

util/ useful

uz/ use


valor/ value

varm/ warm

vast/ vast

ven/ come

vend/ sell

venk/ win

ver/ true

verk/ compose

vesper/ evening

vest/ clothing

veter/ weather

vetur/ take a trip

vi/ pronoun you 

vid/ see

vin/ wine

vir/ man

viv/ be alive

vizit/ visit

voĉ/ voice, vote

voj/ way, path

vojaĝ/ travel

vol/ want

volv/ wind up

vort/ word

vulp/ fox


zorg/ care for


Contributed on 28 February 2002 to the public domain

by Christopher Zervic, author.


Esperanto Society of Chicago